Psychology Questions

 

Psychology Questions

1. In a rare case of extraordinary episodic memory, Jill can remember the details of life since the age of 14.  But ironically, she does not possess extraordinary _ flashbulb ______ memory.

Answer

  semantic
    state-dependent
    flashbulb
    emotion-dependent

2. This semester you are taking psychology; last semester you took sociology and did well. Now, sociological terms are interfering with your memory of psychological terms. This illustrates:

Answer

    primary interference
  secondary interference
    retroactive interference
    proactive interference

 

3. What is the best reason why Clive Wearing forget his children’s names, but remembers how to play the piano?

Answer.

  The names and how to play the piano represent different types of memory that are stored differently in the brain.
    His memories of how to play the piano are “older” than his more recent memories of names.
    The memories of names are procedural memory whereas how to play the piano is declarative memory and these different memories are stored differently.
    The memories of names are declarative memory whereas how to play the piano is procedural memory and these different memories are stored differently

4. Interesting facts, which are examples of __ semantic __ information, are encoded _ with effort ___ into long-term memory.

Answer

  semantic; with effort
    semantic; automatically
    episodic; with effort
 

5. Unlike that of short-term memory, the capacity of long-term memory:

Answer

    depends on cell development in the frontal lobe
    is almost unlimited
    varies tremendously from one person to the next
    is sixty to seventy items that can be consciously recalled

6. Allison is learning Spanish, but she hates it. When she is in her Spanish classes, she is always unhappy. The phenomenon of state-dependent learning would suggest that she would show better recall of Spanish words if she:

Answer

    was in a better mood
    was in an unhappy mood
    could block out the proactive interference
    developed adequate retrieval cues

7. In analyzing repressed memories, Loftus contends that therapists:

Answer

    may play some role in suggesting or implanting traumatic memories in their clients
    only facilitate the release of repressed memories
    are totally responsible for their clients’ repressed memories
    are skeptical about the existence of any repressed memories

8. At a recent family reunion you saw cousins that you have not seen for years. You also met for the first time, the spouses of these cousins. Unfortunately, you don’t remember most of their names. The name you do recall was your cousin Tom’s wife, Nancy; they came at the very end of the reunion. Why did you remember Nancy, but forget all the other names?

Answer

    primacy effect
    recency effect
    maintenance effect
    semantic principle

9. When rats are given an injection of epinephrine, they show a(n):

Answer

    decrease in retention
    increase in retention
    decrease in hierarchical organization of long-term memory
    increase in encoding of semantic memory

 

 

10. Gaylord likes to do memory tricks. He can memorize a list of 25 digits in just 25 seconds and then correctly recalls them. Based on this module, what is the most probable way he can do this trick?

 

Answer

    chunking  
    interfering
  encoding
    recoding

 

11. What happened in the study described in your textbook on iconic memory when the delay between the presentation of the letters and when subjects are asked to recall the letters is increased to one second?

 

Answer

    Memory of the letters is reduced to an average of four letters.
    Memory of the letters is increased to an average of four letters.
    Memory of the letters is increased to an average of nine letters.
    Memory is not affected.

 

12. Mary uses numerous different colors when she takes notes in her psychology class. If she has difficulty with a question on an exam, she finds it helpful to remember the color of the notes relevant to the question. For Mary, the color of the notes acts as a(n):

 

Answer

    retrieval cue
    echoic device
    pegword cue
    processing distraction

 

13. Remembering your first day as a college student would be considered:

 

Answer

 

    episodic information
    semantic information
    consequential information
    procedural information

 

14. In the study described in your textbook on iconic memory, how many letters on average could subjects immediately recall?

 

Answer

 

    4
    6
    9
    12

 

 

15. You are being introduced to several people in your first job interview: Ted, Julie, Benito, Dewayne, Frank, and Andy. Based on the primacy effect, whose name are you most likely to remember?

 

Answer

    Benito
    Dewayne
    Andy
    Ted

 

16. Proactive interference is to ____ as retroactive interference is to ____.

 

Answer

    primary; secondary
    encode; retrieval
    forward; backward
    backward; forward

 

17. Echoic memory allows an individual to:

 

Answer

  see separate images as continuous
    see the world as stable, despite the movement of the eyes
    remember speech sounds long enough to understand words
    maintain knowledge about one’s own personal experiences

 

18. When Sarah was 14 years old, she took a virginity pledge. Now four years later she has had sexual intercourse. Based on the study by Rosenthal, what would be a typical response by Sarah regarding her sexual activity?

 

Answer

    She was serious about the pledge and has much guilt about breaking it.
    She readily dismisses the virginity pledge confessing she really wasn’t serious about it at the time.
    She denies ever having made the virginity pledge.
    She regrets ever having made the virginity pledge, but doesn’t feel guilty about it.

 

19. If you asked H. M. to tell you about how his mirror drawing was progressing, he would say:

Answer

    his skill was improving
    he doesn’t ever remember mirror-drawing since that would use procedural memory, which was damaged
    his skill was deteriorating
    he doesn’t ever remember mirror-drawing since that would use declarative memory, which was damaged

 

20. Suzy is riding in a subway car when a young thug rips off her gold necklace and runs away. Suzy’s ability to later describe to the police what happened is due to the functioning of her ____ memory.

Answer

    procedural
    episodic
    attentional
    elaborative

 

21. Peter sustains damage to his cortex due to a car accident. What can we expect will be the changes to his memory?

Answer

    Peter will have great difficulty with both short-term and long-term memory.
    Peter will be able to remember new memories, but not old memories.
    Peter will be able to remember nondeclarative memory, but not declarative memory.
    Peter’s memory will be largely unaffected.

 

22. What is a type of memory that allows information to be held for a short period of time until you decide what to do with it?

Answer

    short-term memory
    long-term memory
    sensory memory
    iconic memory

 

23. Which of the following areas of the brain appears to be most related to memory storage?

Answer

  cerebellum
    medulla
    hippocampus
    hypothalamus

 

24. Mr. Nguyen witnesses a bank robbery. During the investigation, he was asked to report everything he remembered without holding back anything. He also was asked to describe the crime from several viewpoints. The technique used to record Mr. Nguyen’s statement is called:

Answer

    free association
    memory retrieval association
    cognitive interview
    source attribution

 

25. The hippocampus is crucial for memories involving:

Answer

    declarative information
    short-term memory
    procedural information
    motor-skill abilities

 

26. Which of the following is the best example of a network hierarchy?

Answer

    local, federal, state, international
    German Shepherd, mammal, animal, cat
    species, kingdom, phylum, class, human
    Earth, Western Hemisphere, North America, Midwest, Iowa

 

27. An education major is interviewing a veteran teacher for a class project. The teacher is asked about how to help students learn and says, “Give lots of examples.” Based on the textbook, what is the best reason for teachers to give examples?

Answer

    Examples help students to connect what they are trying to learn with old information.
    Examples facilitate iconic memory.
    Examples are actually “fillers” that allow students extra time to think about the lesson.
    Examples help students to do maintenance rehearsal.

 

28. The study comparing Ghanaian and American students on recall suggests that:

Answer

    the English language is easier to learn than Ghanaian
    female students have better memories than male students in each culture
    culture can influence how information is encoded and how easily it can be retrieved
    culture does not significantly influence how information is encoded and how easily it can be retrieved

 

29. On the way to her wedding, Maria thinks about all the other men she has dated. Her clearest memory is of Lawrence, her first boyfriend. Maria’s recall illustrates the ____ effect.

Answer

    recency
    primacy
    semantic
    encoding

 

30. Todd runs into Sarah, his former girlfriend. Oh no! He can’t remember her name and calls her Robin, the name of his current girlfriend. What type of interference did Todd just experience?

Answer

    primary interference
    secondary interference
    retroactive interference